“This study reports a link between 25(OH)VD deficiency and a reduction in glutathione (GSH) in obese adolescents. The improvement in GSH status that results from cosupplementation with VD and l-cysteine (LC; a GSH precursor) significantly reduced oxidative stress in a mouse model of 25(OH)VD deficiency. It also positively upregulated VD regulatory genes (VDBP/VD-25-hydroxylase/VDR) in the liver and glucose metabolism genes (PGC-1α/VDR/GLUT-4) in muscle, boosted 25(OH)VD, and reduced inflammation and insulin resistance (IR) levels in the blood compared with supplementation with VD alone. In vitro GSH deficiency caused increased oxidative stress and downregulation of VDBP/VD-25-hydroxylase/VDR and upregulation of CYP24a1 in hepatocytes and downregulation of PGC-1α/VDR/GLUT-4 in myotubes. This study demonstrates that improvement in the GSH status exerts beneficial effects on the blood levels of 25(OH)VD, as well as on the inflammation and IR in a VD-deficient mouse model. Thus, the VD supplements widely consumed by the public are unlikely to be successful unless the GSH status is also corrected.”

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