“The brain is among the major organs generating large amounts of reactive oxygen species and is especially susceptible to oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) plays critical roles as an antioxidant, enzyme cofactor, cysteine storage form, the major redox buffer, and a neuromodulator in the central nervous system. GSH deficiency has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases.
Increasing the neuronal GSH level, whether endogenously or exogenously, would prevent the progression of some age-related neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress. It is unclear whether exogenous GSH/cysteine supplements are clinically effective, whereas endogenous mechanisms inducing GSH synthesis might be an alternative strategy against neurodegeneration. Cysteine transport via EAAC1 plays an important role in neuronal GSH synthesis. Although the precise mechanism(s) regulatingEAAC1 function remains elusive, an agent inhibitingGTRAP3-18 would be a promising approach to increasing the neuronal GSH level endogenously in patients with neurodegenerative diseases.”
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